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The working principle of stepping motor
- May 09, 2018 -

When a current flows through the stator windings, the stator winding generates a vector magnetic field. The magnetic field will drive the rotor to rotate an angle so that the direction of a pair of magnetic fields of the rotor coincides with the direction of the magnetic field of the stator. When the stator's vector magnetic field rotates an angle. The rotor also turns an angle with the magnetic field. Each time an electric pulse is input, the motor rotates an angle forward. The angular displacement it outputs is proportional to the number of input pulses and the speed is proportional to the pulse frequency. By changing the order in which the windings are energized, the motor will reverse. Therefore, the number of control pulses, the frequency, and the sequence of energization of the motor phases can be used to control the rotation of the stepper motor.

Commonly seen types of motors have iron cores and winding coils inside. Windings have resistance, and power will produce losses. The loss is proportional to the square of the resistance and current. This is the copper loss we often say. If the current is not a standard DC or sine wave, it will also produce harmonic losses; the core has hysteresis. The eddy current effect also produces losses in an alternating magnetic field. Its magnitude is related to material, current, frequency, and voltage. This is called iron loss.

Both copper loss and iron loss are manifested as heat, which affects the efficiency of the motor. Stepping motors generally seek positioning accuracy and torque output, the efficiency is relatively low, the current is generally large, and the harmonic components are high, the frequency of the current alternating changes with the speed, so the stepper motor generally has a heating condition, and the situation is more general Severe AC motor.

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